It was Einstein who first recognized that Planck's work spelled the downfall of classical physics; but general recognition of this only came later, probably with Bohr's quantum theory of the atom, around 1913. So the following structure would not work well: A large section giving a textbook account of Kuhn; another section giving a textbook overview of the domain; a short section relating the two. But the new theory had achieved such striking successes, it was rational to conjecture that progress lay in developing the new theory, applying it to new phenomena, reconciling it with special relativity - in doing something like Kuhnian normal science, in other words - rather than in trying to develop a rival theory, a rival research programme. It makes it possible for improving theoretical knowledge to lead to a reassessment of what is the best available blueprint, which in turn leads to a reassessment of the best available non-empirical methodological rules, such as symmetry principles. Be that as it may, great summary of the philosophers of science! Corresponding to these increasingly specific aims there are increasingly restrictive methods. Thanks for the post! Copyright Nicholas Maxwell: All Rights Reserved, Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos and Aim-Oriented Empiricism, 5 From Falsificationism to Aim-Oriented Empiricism, 6 Aim-Oriented Empiricism an Improvement over Falsificationism, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT Tel: +44 (0) 20 7679 2000. Given NT, it is a simple matter to concoct rival theories, of the above type, that satisfy all the above bare falsificationist requirements for being more acceptable than NT. Indeed, if the level 4 assumption of AOE is correct, then all current physical theories are false, since this assumption asserts that the true physical theory of everything is unified, and the totality of current fundamental physical theory, general relativity plus the standard model, is notoriously disunified.Finally, at level 1 there are accepted empirical data, low level, corroborated, empirical laws.In order to be acceptable, an assumption at any level from 6 to 3 must (as far as possible) be compatible with, and a special case of, the assumption above in the hierarchy; at the same time it must be (or promise to be) empirically fruitful in the sense that successive accepted physical theories increasingly successfully accord with (or exemplify) the assumption. In general, I think Lakatos was more concerned with the science/pseudoscience divide and the "logical" structure of scientific theories, while Kuhn was more broadly concerned with the history and sociology of science.
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